Using Locally Produced Photovoltaic Energy to Charge Electric Vehicles06. September 2017

As more and more countries announce their plans for banning combustion engines (e.g., [1, 2]), it becomes critical to find ecologically sustainable ways to power electric vehicles. While wind and water provide energy throughout the whole day, photovoltaic installations have production peaks around midday which need to captured either by smart appliances (such as washing machines) or by some form of energy storage, such as batteries or water reservoirs. A solution for both problems could be to use the car batteries to cap the solar production peaks - possibly even completely locally, i.e., without requiring transmission lines to transport energy over large distances.

Our paper Using Locally Produced Photovoltaic Energy to Charge Electric Vehicles [3] (to be published in Computer Science - Research and Development and presented at D-A-CH+ Energieinformatik 2017) discusses this potential of using solar energy to power electric cars of commuters in Switzerland. On the one hand, we compute the potentially available solar energy on rooftops in each municipality:

This is put in relation to the energy required by all work commuting travels, both within municipalities, as well as between different ones. The routes traveled are given as follows:

In a first scenario, we assume that people only charge their electric cars during the day at their workplace. We find that without shifting power from one municipality to another it is possible to cover up to 89% of the energy demand of commuter mobility. This also means that in larger cities (which have a high photovoltaic potential due to many rooftops), energy production peaks can be captured by electric cars, without the need to deploy additional batteries or storage capacity. The following figure shows the energy balance in July:

In a second scenario, where people only charge their cars at home (usually during the night), solar energy could cover 99.95% of the commuter energy demand. However, this requires installed storage capacity of around 9.32 GWh to shift the energy from day to night. Currently, 13.5 kWh batteries are targeted at homeowners, which means that around 690'000 households in Switzerland would need to be equipped with such a battery to let people charge their cars at home during the night.

The above presented analyses consider a full coverage of rooftops with solar panels, as well as a complete replacement of combustion engine cars with electric cars. This shift will not happen instantaneously, so the values should be taken solely as indications of potential future energy balances. It also needs to be noted that leisure travel and freight transport make up a substantial amount of mobility, which is not represented in above numbers. For more details, seasonal influence on solar energy production, and scenarios where people charge cars both at home and at work, please refer to the paper.

[1] https://www.theguardian.com/business/2017/jul/06/france-ban-petrol-diesel-cars-2040-emmanuel-macron-volvo

[2] http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/norway-to-ban-the-sale-of-all-fossil-fuel-based-cars-by-2025-and-replace-with-electric-vehicles-a7065616.html

[3] https://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/173513





Introducing the dominikbucher.com Blog08. August 2016

After spending some time the last couple days to overhaul my website, I finally managed to include a super small blog as well. While very rudimentary for the moment (it basically just allows me to publish and edit posts using markdown), I will slowly but surely expand this to cover other needs that arise (comments, tags, nicer design, etc.).

This blog will mainly contain:

  • Short articles which mostly serve myself as a memory helper for things I did, but might be of use to someone else as well (e.g., how to configure a certain library, or set up some software).
  • Thought provoking paragraphs on ideas that come to my mind (you will have to take these with a grain of salt, they might be very rough).
  • Longer articles covering topics I think are interesting, but are not large or interesting enough for a scientific publication.
  • Summaries and explaining posts to scientific articles, mostly to make them approachable to a larger audience.

The stuff written in the blog is my own, so don't blame anyone else for it ;).

Along with the blog, I gave the site a bit of an overhaul. A big change is the street network graph on the main page. It is an extent of the streets of Zurich, and some relatively stupid agents going from A to B on it. Nothing fancy for the moment, but I might update this at some point, when I'll have time...

The underlying data comes from OpenStreetMap, and the whole visualization is done using sketch.js. If I manage to clean up the code, I might write some more about it here as well...

Until then, cheers!